Fountas and Pinnell
The F&P Text Level Gradient™ was first introduced in Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children (1996), establishing Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell as the leading voices in the area of guided reading instruction.
The publications of The Continuum of Literacy Learning, the Benchmark Assessment System 1 and 2, and the Leveled Literacy Intervention Systems are the result of over two decades of research and practical work with teachers. All of Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell’s work references their text leveling system—The F&P Text Level Gradient™—often referred to as Guided Reading Levels or F&P Levels.
Based on their work in Reading Recovery® and other comprehensive approaches that involved high impact interventions for struggling readers, Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell knew that it was essential to match books to readers and to provide differentiated instruction through working with small groups in reading. They teamed up with Heinemann to write Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Students in 1996, a focused professional book that offered practical advice and discussions of research-based practice in this area.